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Offline Shasika

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CATATAN KULIAH
« on: 27 July 2013, 01:37:20 AM »
Saya ingin membagi catatan kuliah saya, semoga ada manfaatnya.

 
History of Pali language

Pali is the language of the Buddha. Earlier it was called Magadhi because this language originally was spoken in the region of Magadha that belongs to northeastern part of India. Thought the Buddha was born in Kapilavathu in Nepal, he migrated to India and engaged in missionary works for the welfare there of people. During the lifetime of the Buddha, He preached his Dhamma to the people by the medium of Ardhamagadhi language. In the same time another religious master called Jain Mahavira wandered in the same region preaching His doctrine called Jainism to the people by the medium of Ardhamagadhi language. Both these two languages Magadhi and Ardhamagadhi were known as Parkrits.
 
Apart from these languages there had been many other regional languages at that time in India. All these languages were belonged to the Prakrit language family. Linguists say that Prakrit languages had been spoken in India fro sixth century B.C to tenth century A.D. Among these languages Pali or Magahi is considered as an oldest language which was used to preach the Buddha’s teaching, and was written down in the first century in Sri Lanka.
 
Although it is believed that the language of the Buddha’s teaching was slightly changed during this period of sixth centuries. Although the Buddha’s teaching, and the language were originated in Magadhi religion, they were subjected to certain alterations in the western part of India. After the Buddha’s lifetime the Buddhist monks migrated from northeast to west parts of the India. Due to this migration the languages of the Buddha’s teaching got contacted with Sanskrit language which was the medium of Brahmins.
 
It is believed that the language Pali was brought to Sri Lankawith the teachings of the Buddha by Thara Mahinda. Thara Mahinda is said to have arrived in Sri Lanka around 3rd century B.C 300 years were elapsed.  Pali language has taken its present shape during this period of time. Unlike Sanskrit, Pali had no restrictions in its utilization therefore Pali was spoken differently in different regions. As we know Sanskrit language was organized by Sanskrit scholars like Panini and Patanjili. Therefore people had to speak Sanskrit accurately and due to this reason Sanskrit language was limited to high cast families. But Pali or Magadhi was common to ordinary people, and because of this Pali was subject to changes. Apart fro this Pali was highly respected by monks and other people considering it as the language of the Buddha. For many centuries no grammar books were composed for the organization of Pali language, the only way they had to follow was Buddha’s teaching.
 
When we considered the name of the language of the Buddha’s teaching at present the term Pali is well-known. But in the history of Buddhist literature the term Pali was confined to the Christian era most probably until up to the tenth century A.D. The Buddha’s teaching was known as Magadhi, in chronicles and in commentarial literature.
 
 
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Re: CATATAN KULIAH
« Reply #1 on: 27 July 2013, 01:39:53 AM »
PALI

Niggahitasandhi
1.The Niggahita followed by a consonant is sometimes change to the final better of the group (N,G,B,n,m) to which the consonant belonged or to the letter “ L”-e.g
1.      Evam+me sutam= evamme sutam
2.      Kim+ci= kinci
3.      Kim+nara=kinnara
4.      Kum+nadi=kunnadi
5.      Pun+linga=pullinga
6.      Sam+jata=sanjata
7.      Sam+lapa=sallapa
 
 
2.The Niggahita followed by “ e” “h” are sometimes changed to “GG” and “G” respectively.
1.      Aham+eva=ahaGGeva
2.      Tam+eva=taGGeava
3.      Aham+hi=ahaGhi
4.      Tam+hi=taGhi
 
3.   The Niggahita followed by “y” is also sometimes changed to “ GG” together with the “y”.
1.      Sam+yama=saGGama
2.      Sam+yutta=saGGutta.
3.      Samam+yeva+samaGGeva
 
4. The Niggahita followed by a vowel is sometimes changed to “m” and somewhere to the “d”.
1.      bahum+eva=bahudeva
2.      etam+avoca=etadavoca
3.      yam+idam=yadidam
4.      Tam+antaram=tadantaram
5.      Tam+anantaram=tadanantaram
6.      yam+icchitam=Yadicchitam
5. the Niggahita too is sometimes inserted before a vowel or a consonant coming after final vowel.
1.      Anu+thula=anumthulam
2.      Cakkhu+udapadi=cakkhumudapadi
3.      Ava+sira=avamsira.
 
 
 
 
6.  Sometimes there is a dropping of the Niggahita before a vowel.
1.      Adasim+aham=adasiham
2.      Sayam+anha=sayanya
3.      Vidunam+aggo=vidunaggo
 
7. Sometimes there is a dropping of the Niggahita also before a consonant.
1.      Buddhanam+sasanam=Buddhanasasanam
2.      Devanam+santike=devanasantike
3.      Dhammanam+paragu=dhammana paragu
4.      Gantum+kamo=gantukamo
 
7. There is sometimes the dropping of a vowel coming after the Niggahita.
1.      Alam+idani=alamdani
2.      Bijam+iva=bijamva
3.      Idam+api=idampi
 
9.When the vowel coming after the Niggahita is dropped, the next consonant if it be a double one also becomes single.
1.      Evam+assa=evam’sa
Puppham+assa=pupphamsa
 
« Last Edit: 27 July 2013, 01:47:50 AM by Shasika »
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Re: CATATAN KULIAH
« Reply #2 on: 27 July 2013, 01:51:26 AM »
PALI

Kaccayana Grammar

At the beginning, it was mentioned about 3 traditions of Pali Grammar: Kaccayana, Moggallana, and Saddaniti. Among these, Kaccayana undoubtedly represented first attempt ever make in writing Pali Grammar. Its author or rather compiler is not known. The fact that the Sinhalese tradition claims the Kaccayana composed by the Buddha’s disciples Mahakaccayana is uncertain as regards is origin and authorship. The reliable tradition of this book can be traced back to the Apadana atthakatha. That mentionsand quotes some sentences from Kaccayana. It says that Mahakaccayana expounded the 3 treatises namely:
Kaccayana Pakarana
Maha Nirutti Pakarana
Nettippakarana

According to the traditional report, Mahakaccayana Thera, on the request of others monks, has expounded these 3 treatises in the midst of Mahasangha. Apart from the above reference, Vajira Buddhi Thera in his Mukhamattadipani that was written in 10th century A.D. as mention about Kaccayana Grammar. Therefore, we are certain that most probably Kaccayana Grammar had been written before 10th century A.D.

Not only the authorship and the time of book are questionable, the title of the book is also doubtful. Generally, the word is quoted by the other grammarians as Kaccayana Vyakarana. Vajira Buddhi says that Grammar is called Kaccayana, because it is the word of Mahakaccayana Thera. Some time he adds that the book is also called Sandhi Kappa. He explained this by referring to a line of the introductory verse of the Sandhi chapter, Vakkami Sandhi Kappam (2 explained Sandhi Kappa). It is impossible to date Kaccayana with any degree of certainty. There is no internal evidence that would give a clue as to when the word was combined. As mentioned early, probably this should be belong to post Buddhagosha period, because some of the grammatical rules, in this back shows the influences of Sanskrit. Presumably in the 6 or 7 century A.D. when one reads Kaccayana Grammar, it become obvious the influence of Sanskrit G[rammar in the compilation of Pali Grammr. It is learn that there were several Sanskrit Grammar books written prior to the composition of Pali Atthakathas. Pali commentator heavily depend on Sanskrit Grammar rather than Pali Grammar. That also implies the later composition of Kaccayana and other Pali Grammar books.

According to the account of Mukhamattadipani, Kaccayana comprise four divisions:
Sandhi Kappa
Namappakarana
Akhyata pakarana
Kibbidhana Pakarana

These 4 divisions have further been divided into 23 sections. The number of these sections also reflects the history of its transmissions. At the beginning, according to Karika (commentary), it was customary to divide Kaccayana into 8 chapters. Considering the number of suttas (Grammatical rules) of the book, it seems it has been gradually increase the number of the chapters. Vajira Buddhi mentions that Kaccayana consist of 710 suttas (suttani dasadhika satani). Further, he says and identifies 34 suttas as interpolations. Accordingly, 674 suttas supposedly can be considered as genuine. Kaccayana Vutti, the commentary to the Kaccayana Grammar explaines 675 suttas in the Sinhalese and Siamese versions. In fact, these differences of number of suttas have been taken place due to it illogical use of the book and incorrect interpretation.

Thouhg there are contain defects, in the Kaccayana Grammar, this can be accepted as the oldest as well as most influences grammar made for Pali. It is evidence that many of the later Pali Grammarians have followed Kaccayana as an ideal work. From 3 major Pali Grammar books majority of supplementary books have been written in the line of Kaccayana. Following are the Pali Grammar books come in the line of Kaccayana tradition:
Rupasiddhi
Balavatara
Culla nirutti
Maha nirutti
Nirutti Pitaka

Gandha vamsa mentions another 2 books that belongs to Kaccayana tradition such as Attha Vyakhya and Mukhamattasara. However, the Pagan inscription of 1442 A.D. mentions not only these books, but some other names too. Particularly Attha Vyakhya must have been and important work because Chappata refers to it 28 times in Kaccayana Niddesa.


« Last Edit: 27 July 2013, 01:58:57 AM by Shasika »
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Re: CATATAN KULIAH
« Reply #3 on: 27 July 2013, 02:01:13 AM »
PALI

Moggallana grammar

Moggallana grammar can be considered as the second important grammatical treatise in the history of Pali tradition in Sri Lanka. This book differs from the method that was followed in Kaccayana. The objective of the author of Moggallana grammar, in composing this book was to introduce an independent as well as distinctive model different from that of Kaccayana. As explain early, Kaccayana grammar had a considerable impact from Katantra grammar of Sanskrit. In the case of Moggallana grammar, the author has had the influence of Candra grammar of Sanskrit.

Although the two languages, Sanskrit and Pali are distinctly different from each other, there is a close similarlity in the application of rules of grammar. Ven. Moggallana who was the author of this grammatical treatise, has stated that there is no much harm in following the rules of Sanskrit grammar even in respect of Pali. Kaccayana modeled his Pali grammar, irrespective of independence of Pali language. When one compares the Suttas of both words, it will be clearly seen that all the suttas of Moggallana grammar have followed the suttas of the Candra. The author of the Moggallana says at the thorough examination of his work is easily can be understood the clear and unambiguous position of this grammar. Further, he says that he has composed this book. Following the entire words of the Buddha. By this saying, Moggallana implies the distinction of his work. Unlike in other grammars, the Suttas and their explanatory notes and commentaries are all the works of one and the same author.

An inscription found from Pollonaruwa in Sri Lanka, that belong to the regime of King Vijayabahu reviews the name of author as Moggallana. According to this report, he was a great Pali scholar. He was also known as chief of the order in that period. Many of the historians in Sri Lanka agreed with regard to this period to say that it was the golden era of Pali language in Sri Lanka. Many of the Pali commentaries, sub-commentaries, chronicles, grammatical treatises and many other books on different subjects were written in this period. Ven. Dimbulagala Kassapa was the leading scholar of this fraternity and his disciples also made a remarkable service ofr the development of Pali.

As Prof. Malalasekera states the Pali language and the literature in this period displayed the contribution of Sri Lanka Buddhist monks for its existence and betterment.

Many of the Pali commentaries, sub-commentaries, chronicles, grammar treatises and on many other subjects were written in Pali medium in this Period. Ven. Dimbulagala Kassapa was the leader of this fraternity and his disciples also made a remarkable service for the development of Pali related subjects.

There are some contradictery notes on Ven. Moggallana who composed this grammar. Some reports review him as chief priest of Pollonaruwa Period, who came to that position after the death of Ven. Sariputta. Ven. Rahula, a well known Pali Scholar in his two books has mentioned about this prestigious position of Moggallana. One is the Pancika Pradipa, in which Moggallana has been introduced as a resident of Thuparama in Anuradhapura. The second book is the Paaadasadena, a sub-commentary that reports the high status of Moggallana as chief priest but in the mean time it says that he counld not hold this position for a long period. Probably, his leadership was limited to a few yars around 1,200 A.D. On the account regarding this matter, one can come to a decision that Moggallana started his work while he was residing Anuradhapura but later he had to move from Anuradhapura to Pollonaruwa with the change of capital city of Sri Lanka.

Comparing with Kaccayana Grammar and many other grammar books, one can identify cotan distinctive features in the organization of Moggallana Grammar. Ven. Moggallana has classified his work into 6 chapters of which the names are different from others. Following is the way of organizing of chapters:

1 Chapter ---- Sabba (Terminology & Combinations)
2 Chapter ---- Syadi (Declension of nouns)
3 Chapter ---- Samana (Compound and Feminine terminations)
4 Chapter ---- Nadi (Secondary Derivatives)
5 Chapter ----Khadi (Primary Derivatives)
6 Chapter ----Tyadi (Conjugations of verbs)

To show the rules and regulations of Pali Grammar, the author codifies hundreds of suttas and he himself provides explanations or definitions to the suttas. The following is the list of the number of Suttas that contains in each chapter.

1 Chapter ---- 58
2 Chapter----243
3 Chapter ----116
4 Chapter ----142
5 Chapter ----179
6 Chapter ---- 78
           ------
           816
           ------

According to this list of the Suttas, it shows that the numbers of suttas are not divided equally in each chapter. When the author found as need of more rules then he provided to meet the demand. Prof. Sannasgala in his history of Sinhala literature says that the entire Moggallana Grammar is an adaptation of Sanskrit Grammar of Candra. As we saw early, Kaccayana did not get the influence of the grammar of Candra, but Ven. Moggallana selected Candra’s Grammar for this purpose.

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Re: CATATAN KULIAH
« Reply #4 on: 27 July 2013, 02:03:46 AM »
PALI

Introduction to two main Pali grammatical traditions

At the beginning, it was mention about three traditions of Pali Grammars, Kaccayana, Moggallana and Sattaniti. Among these Kaccayana undoubtedly represents the first attempt ever made in writing a Pali Grammar. Its order or rather compiler is not known. The fact that the Sinhalese tradition clams the Kaccayana composed by the Buddha’s disciple Mahakaccayana, is uncertain as regards its origin and authorship. The reliable tradition of this book can be traced back to the Apaplana Atthagatha. That mentions and quotes some sentences from kaccayana. It says that Mahakaccayana expounded the three treatises namely:
1.    Kaccayana pakarana
2.    Mahanirutti Pakarana
3.    Nettippakarana

We are certain that most probably Kaccayana grammar had been written before 10th century A.D. Vajirapuddhi says that the grammar is called Kaccayana, because it is the work of MahaKaccayana thera. This Kaccayana grammar believed to be post- Buddhaghosa period. Because some of the grammatical rules, in this book shows the influence of Sanskrit. Presumably in the 6th or 7th century A.D when one reads Kaccayana grammar it becomes obbise the influence of Sanskrit Grammar in the Combination of Pali grammar.

According to the count of Mogallana, Kaccayana complies 4 divisions. They are:
1.    Sandhi kappa
2.    Namappakarana
3.    Akhyata pakarana
4.    Kibbidhana pakarana
These 4 divisions have further being divided into 23 sections. The number of the sections also reflects the history of it transmission. Though, there are certain effects in the Kaccayana grammar, this can be accepted as the oldest as well as most influential grammar made for Pali.

Moggallana can be considered as the second important grammatical treatise in the history of Pali radition in SL. This book defers from the method that was followed in Kaccayana. The objective of the author of ML grammar, in composing this book was to introduce an independent as well as distinctive model different from that of Kaccayana. As explain earlier Kaccayana grammar had a considerable impact from Katantra grammar of Sanskrit. In the case of Moggallana grammar the author has add the influence of Gandra grammar of Sanskrit. Although, the two languages Sanskrit and pali are distinctly different from each other. There is a close similarity in the application of rules of grammar. Ven. Moggallana who was the author of this grammatical treatise, has stated that there is no much harm in following the rules of Sanskrit grammar even in respect in Pali. Kaccayana modeled his Pali grammar, irrespective of independence of Pali language. When one compares the suttas of both towards it will be clearly seen that all the suttas of Moggallana grammar have followed the suttas of the Gandra. The author of Moggallana grammar says at the through examination of his work it easily can be understood the clear and unambiguous position of this grammar. Unlike in other grammars the suttas and their explanatory notes and commentaries are all the work of one and the same author.

An inscription found from Polonaruwa in SL that belongs to the Rejime of King Vijjayabahu revils the name of the author as Moggallana. According to this report he was a great pali scholar. He was also known as a chief of the author in that period. Many historians in SL agree with regard to this period to say that it was the golden era of the Pali language in SL. Many Pali commentaries, sub-commentaries and many other books on different subject were written in this period. And in those commentaries and sub-commentaries these two grammars were use mostly.       
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Re: CATATAN KULIAH
« Reply #5 on: 27 July 2013, 02:11:24 AM »
PALI

Sandhi

Linguistic sounds are usually modified depending on the sounds that immediately follow or precede them. Thus is done for early pronunciation and here in English such modifications are referred to an euphonic combination both in Sanskrit and Pali such joining are simply called Sandhi (from Sam+dha) meaning joining combination junction the main purpose of adopting such combination is for easy pronunciation and is often used in Pali. Normally this going takes place between the last letter of the first word and the first letter of the second word such combinations can be broadly divided into four types, there are:
1.Sara—Sandhi: of vowels (sara). This takes place when a word ending in a vowel (sara) is combined with a word beginning with a vowel (sara). It can take place also when two vowel occurring are after the other in the same word.
2. Vyanjana—Sandhi: combination of a vowel and a consonant. This happens when a word ending in a vowel is joined to a word beginning with a consonant.
3. Niggahita—Sandhi: this is the combination that takes place between a word ending with the linguistic sounder letter “M’’ with a word beginning with letter a vowel or a consonant.
4. Vomissaka—Sandhi: these types of mixed sandhi.     

In effecting vowel combination (Sandhi) and consonant combination the following methods are usually applied.
(a).  Elision (Lopa)        (b). Changing or replacing          (c). Inserting (adese)
(d). Lengthening (digha)    (e). Shortenings (rassa) and        (f). Reduplicating (dvitva)
However unlike in Sanskrit these rules are not so strict in Pali.

(1) Sara Sandhi
1. A vowel before another vowel is sometimes elided (the 1st is elided).
e.g. Bhikkhun + ovado=bhikkhunovado.    Matu + upatthanam - matupatthanam.

2. When two contiguous vowels are dissimilar, the second is sometimes elided.
E.g Chaya + iva=chaya’va.                Iti + api=itipi.
So + aham=so’ham.               
3. The vowel “a” or “A” combines with a following “i” or “” to “e”: with a following “u” or “U” to “o” For example “a”+ “i” or “” > “e”; “a” + “u” or “U” > “o”.
e.g Jina + Iritam=jineritam            Canda + udayo=candodaya.
Na + upeti= nopeti.

4. When the first is elided the second is sometimes lengthened.
e.g Tatra + ayam=tatryaM.                Tada + aham=tadaham.
Thata + upamam=thatupamam.

5. Sometimes the first vowel becomes long when the second is elided (note that only the dissimilar second vowel is elided).
e.g Deva + iti=devati.                Sadhu + iti=sadhiti.

(2) Consonant Sandhi
1. A consonant after a vowel is generally reduplicated. An aspirate is reduplicated by an un-aspirate, and an un-aspirate by itself.
e.g. Rupa + khandho=rupakkhandho.                Du + karam=dukkaram
   
2. A long vowel before a reduplicated consonant is often shortened.
e.g. TanhA + khayo=tanhakkhayo            MahA + phalam=mahapphalam
 (3) Niggahita Sandhi
“m” before a vagga-consonant may, sometimes, be transformed to the nasal or the fifth letter of the group to which that consonant belong.
e.g. Dipam + karo=dipankaro. Tam + phalam=tanphalam.             
Evam + me + sutam =evan me suttam.

(4) Mixed Sandhi (vomissaka)
1.‘g’ is sometime augmented when a vowel follows
E.g. putha+eva=puthageva
2. ‘abhi’ become ‘abbha’ when followed by a vowel.
Eg abhi+uggato=abbhuggato
3. Similarly adhi become ajjha
E.g. adhi+okaso=ajjhokaso
4. ‘a’ of ‘putha’ becomes ‘u’ when followed by a consonant
e.g. putha+jano=puthujjano



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Re: CATATAN KULIAH
« Reply #6 on: 27 July 2013, 02:14:17 AM »
BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY

Mano

Mano means mind. It has characteristic as citta and vinnana.  In the philosophy of Buddhism it plays a very important role.  All human actions are performed by mind (Mano maya- mind precedes all actions). So human conducts are to be explained by the nature of mind. As to Buddhist psychology the mind is a dynamic continuous (Santati). This nature even goes to a numerable number of births. This does not mean that mind is permanent. Buddhism totally denied such existence of any permanent entity. It is due to causally condition. The Buddha definitely explained that there is no such abiding substance.

In the early, we find basically three words to connote mind. Here the terms like Citta, Mano, and Vinnana have been used synonym mostly. These three terms are often used in the change of lists in Pali text to discuss the nature of the mind. It does not mean that these rebirths are predicated in the same thing because Dhammasangani gives list of synonym words to mind. There are Citta, mano, manassa, hadaya, pandara, manayatana, vinnana, vinnanakkhandha, tajjhamano vinnanadhatu.

Even the commentators found exegetical differences on them, and gave specific meaning each of them. This implies that there are different commentaries, which point to different dimension of the mind. Each word views the same reality but different dimension of the mind. In this sense, there are not identical.

Some scholars say these three represent the various passage of consciousness. It seems that all are needful to create an intellectual state in the mind. Mano means thinking, minding. It denotes a noetic awakening of the subliminal consciousness (Bhavanga). It is a well factors that subliminal consciousness. It disturbed by stimulus (Arammana) that can be an external or internal one. The mind is ready to receive any object and that will make a thought process. This noetic is opening the thought process. It is function of Mano. It makes the intellectual functioning of the mind. It stands as an actual a noetic centre. This is the first state of intellectual functioning in the mind.

Without Mano there is no such intellectual function in the mind. The word Mano is never used to predicate the state of a neurotic consciousness as of Citta vinnana. In the Abhidhamma Pitaka the word Citta and Vinnana sometimes are used to connote the neurotic consciousness (Acinta). It always stands with the word Bhavanga, Bhavangacitta, and Bhavangavinnana. The neurotic state of mind sometimes has been mentioned as Kiriyacitta-functional mind. In this state, Mano citta vinnana all the three state of mind, are working together.

In the Abhidhamma Pitaka, we find the word Manojava where the word is used to predicate the same function of the mind. Independent on Mano, dhamma arises Manovinnana-mind consciousness. Here Mano stands as a sense or sphere of perception. According to Buddhism, Ayatana are divided into two groups: Ajjhattika- inner, and bahira- outer. Here Mano has to be studied as Ajjhattika mano- inner mind. Normally mind is function due to the vitality and the receiving of the six senses. If there is no vitality of these senses there never occurs the thought process. All these six senses, inner senses, Buddha used the word Mano to connote these inner sense. The mind that is eternal is intact, the external mental object come within its range but there is no appropriate impact, then there is no an appearance of the appropriate section of consciousness.

Thus unimpaired mind is necessary condition. Without internal mind receiving of a mental object is not possible. Unimpaired mind represents notice awakening. It is internal mind which is the notice door mind ( Cinthadvara). The word Santana is never used with Mano. Instead the word is hyphenated with Citta ( Cittasantana). This would stand for consciousness. Santana is continuance of the mind. Mano signifies a point where notice awakening take place. This emergence of notice awakening opens to function cognitive process.

Whatsoever things are evil, have part evil, all such have mind for their causing, first arises mind as the forerunner of them, and those evil things follow after. The quotation of A.N shows mano may refer more subtle but noticeable things. Mano is an independent centre, which can produce thoughts. All these are preceded by the inner senses of mano. Before the emergence of thought mano stands as a forerunner of them. It is very certain that without emergence of mano, the appearance of thought will never occur. In the famous statement find in the Dhammapada asserts this Manopubbamgama dhamma, manosettha manomaya- things are controlled by inner senses, so fast by inner senses, made by inner senses.

According to Buddhism, the mind is coming before the mental images. Therefore, we can say that mano plays an important role. In creation of manosankhara or mental formations are created by mano. Citta identifies an object, which falls into mano. Mano has very specific function, which is not shared by any of the other faculties. It consists of the ability of survey the object of the other senses. Its function is to assist in brining back the impression produced by the other sense faculties. The Buddha singles out Mano as a free condition for all knowledge and experience. Sometime function of the mind may produce to think the feeling of self. When the Buddha stated that different word to signify different and subtle function of the same general complex of mind.

Naturally, it has to think that Mano is one among six faculties that condition mind. Manassa dhammam vinnana. It is stated everywhere after noticing dhamma with the help of Mano, one pleases content with the objects. Here too, Mano means sense faculties. Citta and Vinnana begin to function there after. Therefore, we can say that because Vinnana and Citta are Mano centred. In order to purport these arguments, quotation found in the Chappisotana Sutta, shows that with regard to emancipation of the mind the Buddha had used Citta instead of Mano (Buddha me citta). The case is that even achieving completed realisation six faculties are going to exist in that very life. But colouring of the mind happens to cease down. Therefore, the Buddha used the word Citta. Thus, it is clear that Citta, Mano, Vinnana tried to express the different passages. That is one of the six faculties of the faculties which stand as annetic of the Bhavanga citta- subliminal consciousness.
« Last Edit: 27 July 2013, 02:16:02 AM by Shasika »
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Offline Shasika

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Re: CATATAN KULIAH
« Reply #7 on: 27 July 2013, 02:18:46 AM »
BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY

Vinnana

The word Vinnana is commonly translated as consciousness. It is one of the most difficult words find in the texts, because it is used in more senses. The word Vinnana is not used only in the field of psychology but also used commonly in the field of metaphysic. In the filed of psychology. The term presents different functions of the mind. We already understood that though the term Citta, Mano, Vinnana are employed to connote the entire complex of consciousness, each word presents different dimension of the same general complex of consciousness. It is a clear factor that when we confined ourselves to the term vinnana, which presents different functions of the same general complex of, mind has been used to dignify the different states of the same mind. Therefore, it is a multi-significant term. This condition opens a great controversy regarding its exact meaning.

Vinnana means knowing something. "Vijanati vijanatiti kho avuso vinnananti vuccati ( M.N-1.292)-knowing , O monks, therefore it is called vinnana. According to Buddhsim the usage of vinnana in the Sutta can be found in two ways. According to Madhupindika Sutta vinnana is used in one way. "Cakkhum ca paticca rupe ca uppajjati cakkhu vinnanam- depending on eye and form visual consciousness arise. (S.N.11.73)". The same passage is repeated starting from other same field. According to Madhupindika sutta, six kinds of consciousness are mentioned. They are:
1.    Visual consciousness which arises depending on eye and form
2.    Auditory consciousness which arise depending on ear and sound
3.    All factory consciousness which arises depending on nose and smell
4.    Gustatory consciousness which arises depending on tongue and taste 
5.    Bodily consciousness which arises depending on body and touch
6.    Mental consciousness which arises depending on mind and dhamma.
According to the expression, the act of vinnana and its origination are very clear. It is aid voluntary action, the contact between sense organ and their respective sense object insensibility made the pave to merge vinnana. For those two factors are necessary: external sense object and internal sense organ or stimulus object.

Depending upon Sankhara, consciousness arises. All the perceive things are sankhara (creation). The objective word is sankhara, thus vinnana arises depending on sankhara, that is both objective and subjective words. Mahatanhasankhaya sutts shows how the vinnana gets different connotation. " O monks, as a fire burns, because this or that appropriate condition, by it is known. If the fire burns because of sticks, it is known as a stick fire and if a fire burns because of grass, it is known as grass fire and if a fire burns because of cow-dung, it is known as cow-dung fire, Even so monks because of the conditions appropriated to it, consciousness arise. It is known by this or that name. When consciousness arises because of eye and form, it is known as visual consciousness. 

Cognition is a complex process. Its first stage is vinnana. It is not full cognition. Here at the first stage or Cakkhuvinnana stage consciousness turn out to be bare sensation as yet undiscriminated by any selective activity. It is the mere awareness of the present of the object. And it does not produce knowledge of any sort " Cakkhuvinnanam pana ettha dassana mattham eva hoti". At this stage consciousness free from differences. The consciousness does not admit any alternative or it is not wavering. At this stage consciousness knows that something is presenting. It does not know anything about the object. It perceived something but not with details " Na kinci dhammam pati vijanati". It is word to note here in this stage there is no attention. This is a mere voluntary direction towards the object. This act of vinnana only begins to operate after stimulus enters through the sense doors. It has direct relationship with the senses but it cannot cognize the object completely. That is why at initial stage vinnana is named under a condition appropriate to it. Another important thing is that at this stage vinnana is neither good nor bad but neuter. Therefore, it cannot e ethically evaluated.

In the instruction given to monks clearly shows that development of mind has to begin at this stage. " The monks advice do cultivate mind at the Cakkhuvinnana stage, then, Bahiya, thus must you train yourself in the seen these will be just the seen, in the heard just the heard, in the imagine just the imagined, in the cognise just the cognised. Thus you will have know their pave that is how you must train yourself.

The earlier view of vinnana also signifies the cognitive consciousness. This includes all residual mental funcions, which produces a full cognition. At the first stage, vinnana is something functionary generated by the interaction of the animated organism, with external matters. But the process of full cognition does not arise here. This is not the final stage in the process of sense cognition, because here the object is not completely comprehended for the perception of material object, there should be other condition.

"Ajjhattikan ca avuso mano aparibhinnam hoti bahira ca dhamma na apatham agacchanti no ca tajjo samannaharo hoti nevatava tajjassa vinnana bhagassa patubhavo hoti- mind, that is intact but external dhammas do cone within its range and there is no appropriated impact, therefore, there is no appearance of the appropriate section of consciousness" (M.N-I-190). This quotation describes the necessary three conditions of cognition (vinnana). The first, the mind as the organ of dhamma, the origin itself must be unimpaired, second, the external object, coning within the field of mental state; third an appropriated impact and of attention.
The sutta says that when these factors are processive, then the emergence of the cognitive consciousness (vinnana) take place. It is important here to study the word "tajjo samannahara". Samannahara means attention, concentration, bringing together. According to commentarial explanation Samanahara means attention Cakkhum ca paticca rupe ca bhavagan avatetva uppajja ca mana manasikaro" . " Tajo" means born there from. Thus this condition there is act of attention should be there to have cognitive consciousness (vinnana). This is act of attention is a deliberate action. But as to the commentarial explanation, there is the meaning of "tajjo- born there from" means act of attention and automatic but the act of arises after the impact of the sense organ, object and visual consciousness.

These functions are automatic, but thereafter act of attention has to be brought about. Therefore it is better to say that it is a deliberate act. When the act of attention is over, one can cognise the object. In this sense, vinnana is rather a cognitive consciousness. In the process of cognitive, or in the act of attention, different mental activities naturally take place. Phassa is one of the mental activities. Phassa has the manifestation of bringing things together. It brings about a sort of cognition between the sense organ, the object and sensation. According to Nikaya literature there are two kinds of phassa (conduct):
1.    Patigha samphassa, it refers to our impression, which comes through the five senses.
2.    Adhivacana samphassa, it refers to the impression that comes through mental contact.

According to Abhidhamma, Phassa is described as the effect of combination of these three. It also explains 'phassa' is as a sort of non-material relationship. There is no physical impact but there is something similar to it. Visuddhimagga also clearly mentions that phassa is non-material. "Ayam hi dhammo samano". But its function is touching the object. "arammane phusana karena eva pavatati"(vs. 463)

Even the later Abhidhamma scholars tried to show that phassa is not a sort of act of impinging on the object, but act of cogitation. The stereotype definition in the Visuddhimagga descries that phassa has the characteristic of touch, the function of impact and the manifestation bring things together. It is interesting to read that even Buddhaghosa emphasised that phassa has the manifestation of bringing things together "Sannipata paccupatthana". That is the coming together of three factors, phassa is a name for this coming together of three factors. When these four factors come together, there arises feeling, this is merely the reaction to contact. Feeling comprises five types of sensitivities, i.e agreeable bodily feeling, disagreeable bodily feeling, agreeable mental feeling, disagreeable mental feeling and feeling of indifference.

Apart from the knowledge of sensitivity, there arises 'Vitakka' which means thinking, reflecting, another work which goes with this vitakka is 'Vicara' which means investigation. At the stage of vitakka, reasoning on the original data is occurred. It is pre-verbal mental utterance. Vicra is an advance stage. It is a subsequent stage of vitakka. It
also means examination. These two factors always go together, but they refer to two different levels of the same stage. The final stage of the process of cognition is named as Papanca.

That is the mental proliferation, expansion or manifoldness. In early stage, data collection is made. At the stage of papanca, the concepts are made. It is an inexorable subjection to an object. In the Abhidhamma, this situation is called " Kappana" or "Parikappana" which means synthetic function of the mind. Papanca is essentially connected with the process of sense perception and papanca is the final state in the process of sense-cognition. Therefore, it is signifies the growth of conceptual aspect of process. This is not a contingent state " Yam papanceti tatonidanam purisam papancasanna sankha samudacaranti atitanagata paccupannesu cakkhu vinneyyesu rupesu"(M.N.111). What one proliferates conceptually due to that concepts characterised by the prolific tendency assail him in regard to material shape cognisable by the eye belonging to the past, future and present. Papanca is associated with the worldly imagination. This is the state, which tend to obscure through the nature of the object. Here, language has a very important role to play, because papanca is associated with language.

Language (namapannatti) and concept (attapannatti) are inseparable. They always go together. Though conceptual activity presupposes the language, they go together. It is clear that these two languages and concept come into operation the state of papanca. But Buddhaghasa in his explanation had ignored the essential connection with language. He used the word "papanca kotthasa" which means part of papanca to connote other material factors. Thereby he ignored the original meaning.

The same sutta, further explains how papancasanna overwhelms the worldliness "Yatonidanam bhikkhu purisam papancasannasankha samuda caranti ettha ce natthi abhinanditabbam abhivaditabbam ajjhositabbam es'ev'anto raganusayanam patighanusayanam ditthanusayanam vicikicchanusayanam mananusayanam bhavaraganusayanam avijjanusayanam dandadana-satthadana-kulaha-viggaha-vivada-tuvantuva-pesunna-musavadanam etth'ete papakaakusala dhamma aparisesa nirujjhantiti ( M.N.I. 109). If, O, monks, one neither delights in or asserts nor clings to that which makes one subject to concept characterised by the proclivity (tendency) to attachment views, ignorance, etc.

This quotation clearly mentions that papanca lead to create the concept. If one does not delight in papancasanna, subjection to papancasanna, one would be realised from all notions. Thus papanca corresponds to views etc. This also hinted that the intuition of ego into the sense perception occurs at this cognitive stage. Due to this, one becomes the victim of one's own conception, craving, conceit, view are three aspect of notions of the self. Thus papanca manifest itself through this psychic factors.

"Papanca yeva papanca sankha tanha papanca sankha ditthi papanca  sankha mana papanca sankha" Papanca themselves are "papanca-sankha " to with tanha papancasankha. With accord to the atthakatha of Buddhaghosa, "papanca-sanna sankha" defined as craving, view and conceit. "Tanha ditthi manam etam adhivacanam "(M.N.Atthakatha.II. 10). Thus these factors are rather the result of papanca, the root cause of the papancasankha. According to sutta Nipata is the acceptance of self, "mantaham asmi" I am he who thinks.

A passage in the sutta Nipata clearly shows the connection of papanca with the same perception. " Yavata avuso channam phassayatananam gati tavata papancassa gati yavta papancassa gati tavala channam phassayatananam gati channam avuso phassayatananam asesaviraga nirodha papancanirodho papancavupasamo. (A.N.II.161). So long your reverence, as there is going to the contact for just so long is there a going to papanca, but by the passionless ending without remainder of the contact, there is coming down of papanca. This quotation shows that papanca is dependent on mental activities, that is vitakha, vicara, phassa etc.

Papanca is an emotionally involved activity. Papanca gives rise to desire it is a conscious activity of concrete image formation.

"Papancasanna itaritara nara papancayanta upyanti sannino manonaya gehasitanca sabbam panujja nekkjammasitam iriyati( S.N.IV.71)-all men who have only prolific image, production go on associating when perceiving but he drives out everything that is mind-made and connected with lay life and goes on the life of renunciation. Papanca is a characteristic of all mental life. The entire image criterions are controlled by papanca. It also has a connection with wishful dream and analytic thought. Understanding of a thing implies a dual relationship that is subjective aspect and objective aspect. papanca is the general term for the both aspects. This experience gives us knowledge of phenomena world. This papanca is also equivalent to " Kamma vinnana" that is why it says who is given to papanca like a deer enjoying papanca, he will fail tareach Nibbana(A.N. 3.294)

In sutta Nipata, we find that papanca is illustrated as a compounding factor with nama-rupa(name and form). Anuvicca papanca namarupam ajjhattam bahiddha ca rogamulam sabbarogamulabandhana pamutto anuvidho tadi pavuccate tathatta(Sn.98). Having understood the prolific, name and form, the root of illness externally and internally, one is released from bondage to the root of all illness.

The common illustration is that name and form is conditioned to vinnana, but here, papanca is used to denote the same idea, the origin of suffering is traced to vinnana "yam kinci dukkham sambhoti, sabbam vinnana paccaya (Sn.734). Thus last stage of vinnana is empirical consciousness. Destruction of the empirical consciousness is the cessation of the phenomenal world. This empirical consciousness is produced by the related psychic factors, such as vedana, phassa, vitakka, papanca etc. Person can avoid these situations if he does not delight on all these psychic factors, thereby he could an end into vinnana "ajjhattan ca bahiddha ca vednam nabhinandato evam satassa carato vinnanam uparujjhati (Sn.215).

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Offline seniya

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Re: CATATAN KULIAH
« Reply #8 on: 27 July 2013, 07:43:47 AM »
Anumodana Granny.... _/\_

Tapi sayangnya bahasa Inggris, jadi malas bacanya ;D
"Holmes once said not to allow your judgement to be biased by personal qualities, and emotional qualities are antagonistic to clear reasoning."
~ Shinichi Kudo a.k.a Conan Edogawa

Offline bluppy

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Re: CATATAN KULIAH
« Reply #9 on: 27 July 2013, 09:01:41 AM »
+1 GRP for the effort and good will
:jempol:

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Re: CATATAN KULIAH
« Reply #10 on: 27 July 2013, 09:09:46 AM »
jadikan ebook dan publish

 [at] Ariyakumara, pls translate kalo mau yg versi indonesia
« Last Edit: 27 July 2013, 09:14:25 AM by Indra »

Offline Shasika

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Re: CATATAN KULIAH
« Reply #11 on: 27 July 2013, 09:52:56 AM »
Anumodana Granny.... _/\_

Tapi sayangnya bahasa Inggris, jadi malas bacanya ;D
Makasih bro Ariyakumara, gitu ya ?
boleh dah nanti terjemahin dlu, tapi jangan sekarang ya  ;D
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Re: CATATAN KULIAH
« Reply #12 on: 27 July 2013, 09:54:21 AM »
+1 GRP for the effort and good will
 :jempol:
Makasih sis Bluppy, tapi maaf ya blom bs balas kirim balik  :rose:
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Offline Shasika

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Re: CATATAN KULIAH
« Reply #13 on: 27 July 2013, 09:55:36 AM »
jadikan ebook dan publish

 [at] Ariyakumara, pls translate kalo mau yg versi indonesia
Makasih bro Indra, tapi caranya saya blom paham, gimana tuh ?
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Offline Indra

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Re: CATATAN KULIAH
« Reply #14 on: 27 July 2013, 10:04:39 AM »
Makasih bro Indra, tapi caranya saya blom paham, gimana tuh ?

cukup kasih license, the rest will be done by almighty god

 

anything