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Offline K.K.

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Aneka Mitos Pengukuhan Sekte-sekte Buddhisme
« on: 12 November 2013, 09:11:38 AM »
Post-nya Bang Shinichi di sebelah yang mengutip B. Sujato mengingatkan saya betapa menariknya mitos-mitos yang muncul untuk mengukuhkan kebenaran masing-masing sekte. Untuk itu, mungkin bisa dikumpulkan dan didiskusikan di sini kisah-kisah itu.

Untuk mengenali mana mitos sektarian dan mana yang bukan, mungkin sementara kita bisa menduga dari tidak adanya pendukung kisah itu di literatur awal dan juga literatur dari sekte kontemporer lainnya. Singkatnya: tambahan belakangan dan hanya ada khusus di sekte tersebut.
(Ini hanya kriteria sementara, mungkin bisa berubah sejalan diskusi.)


Offline xenocross

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Re: Aneka Mitos Pengukuhan Sekte-sekte Buddhisme
« Reply #1 on: 12 November 2013, 09:48:20 AM »
Sekte itu didefinisikan apa dulu?

Yg saya bisa langsung ingat: mitos pendirian aliran Zen.
Buddha menghirup wangi bunga dan Mahakasyapa tersenyum.

Aliran Yogacara
Arya Asanga dibawa oleh Maitreya ke surga Tusita dan menerima ajaran disana

Quote
Demikianlah Theravāda bersikeras bahwa Abhidhamma Theravāda telah diajarkan Sang Buddha di surga Tāvatiṁsa selama pengasingan diri musim hujan-Nya yang ketujuh. Mahāyāna menyatakan bahwa sūtra-sūtra Mahāyāna ditulis pada masa Sang Buddha, disimpan di alam naga di bawah laut, kemudian didapatkan kembali oleh Nāgārjuna 500 tahun kemudian. Zen menyatakan otoritas dari suatu transmisi oral esoteris di luar kitab suci yang berasal dari Mahā Kassapa, yang disimbolkan oleh senyuman Mahā Kassapa ketika Sang Buddha memegang sekuntum teratai.
« Last Edit: 12 November 2013, 09:54:31 AM by xenocross »
Satu saat dari pikiran yang dikuasai amarah membakar kebaikan yang telah dikumpulkan selama berkalpa-kalpa.
~ Mahavairocana Sutra

Offline xenocross

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Re: Aneka Mitos Pengukuhan Sekte-sekte Buddhisme
« Reply #2 on: 12 November 2013, 09:58:38 AM »
untuk aliran-aliran belakangan yg merupakan cabang, kadang mitos itu bukan mitos tentang Buddha, tetapi mitos tentang guru pendiri aliran tersebut. Jadi memang ga ada di literatur awal
Satu saat dari pikiran yang dikuasai amarah membakar kebaikan yang telah dikumpulkan selama berkalpa-kalpa.
~ Mahavairocana Sutra

Offline K.K.

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Re: Aneka Mitos Pengukuhan Sekte-sekte Buddhisme
« Reply #3 on: 12 November 2013, 10:03:52 AM »
Saya mulai dengan yang disinggung oleh B. Sujato:

1. Theravada: Vassa ke tujuh Buddha mengajarkan Abhidhamma di Tavatimsa.

Perbandingan dengan literatur awal:
*Tidak ada pengajaran metode abhidhamma dalam Nikaya-nikaya awal.
*Istilah "Abhidhamma & Abhivinaya" dalam literatur awal tidak pernah merujuk pada sistem dalam "Abhidhamma Pitaka", bahkan sesungguhnya tidak ada penjelasan detail.
*Definisi Abhidhamma paling dekat mungkin adalah dalam MN 103. Kintisutta yang merujuk pada 7 kumpulan Bodhipakkhiyadhamma.
*MN 134 menyiratkan Buddha mengajarkan dhamma di Tavatimsa, namun berupa syair bhaddekaratta.

Perbandingan dengan literatur sekte lain:
*Tidak seperti Nikaya dengan Agama, literatur abhidhamma antar sekte sangat berbeda jauh dalam penjelasannya.
*Abhidharma dalam Sarvastivada, misalnya, tidak pernah diklaim sebagai Ajaran Buddha di Tavatimsa, namun merupakan produk para siswa (langsung & tidak langsung) Sang Buddha dalam merangkum ajaran.
*Samyukta Agama menyinggung pengajaran di Trayastimsa, namun lagi-lagi tidak ada disinggung Abhidharma.

-------

2. Mahayana: Ada sutra yang ditulis masa Buddha, disimpan di alam naga, diambil kembali oleh Nagarjuna.

Perbandingan dengan literatur awal:
*Dibandingkan Nikaya, isi sutra-sutra Mahayana bisa dibilang kontradiktif.
*Literatur awal dipertahankan secara lisan, tidak ditulis.
*Menurut Nikaya awal, tidak ada ajaran yang disembunyikan oleh Buddha, semua telah disampaikan dengan sempurna.

Perbandingan dengan sekte lain:
*Pada masa sekte awal, kebanyakan cabang dari Sthaviravada menggunakan pendekatan abhidharma. Nagarjuna adalah salah satu yang menentang pendekatan tersebut dan merumuskan paham "sunyata"-nya. Ajarannya disebut Sunyavada dan kemudian menjadi sekte sendiri yang disebut Madhyamaka.

-------

3. Zen: Tradisi transmisi spontan tanpa-kata dari Buddha ke Maha Kasyapa.

*Kisah ini jelas tidak ada dalam literatur awal, juga sebelum munculnya sekte Chan di China abad 6. Beberapa pendapat menduga kisah ini adalah "bajakan" dari kisah Demeter memberikan transmisi tanpa-kata ke Triptolemus tentang rahasia pertanian.

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Re: Aneka Mitos Pengukuhan Sekte-sekte Buddhisme
« Reply #4 on: 12 November 2013, 10:09:08 AM »
Kisah Sang Buddha mengajar di surga Tavatimsa sekilas disebutkan dlm literatur awal dan beberapa teks Agama dari tradisi non-Theravada: http://dhammacitta.org/forum/index.php/topic,24191.msg447292.html#msg447292
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Re: Aneka Mitos Pengukuhan Sekte-sekte Buddhisme
« Reply #5 on: 12 November 2013, 10:16:19 AM »
Kisah kotbah bunga kepada Mahakassapa jelas tambahan belakangan yg ditulis di Cina: http://sujato.wordpress.com/2011/05/22/the-date-of-the-flower-sermon/
"Holmes once said not to allow your judgement to be biased by personal qualities, and emotional qualities are antagonistic to clear reasoning."
~ Shinichi Kudo a.k.a Conan Edogawa

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Re: Aneka Mitos Pengukuhan Sekte-sekte Buddhisme
« Reply #6 on: 12 November 2013, 10:25:16 AM »
 [at] Shinichi & yang lain:

Ada beberapa mitos yang saya belum banyak baca/dengar, kalau ingat atau punya sumbernya, boleh dishare:

*Konsili tandingan Mahayana, eksklusif bodhisatva, dipimpin Samantabhadra dengan pembacaan vinaya oleh Maitreya, pembacaan sutra oleh Vajrapani, dan abhidharma oleh Manjusri.
*"Wawancara" Maitreya oleh tokoh Yogacara, Asanga.
*Yajnavalkya orang yang mendengar langsung ajaran Buddha yang dalam lalu masuk meditasi selama ratusan tahun, dan bangun lagi di masa orang-orang belajar cuma "kulit-kulitnya ajaran Buddha" dan menjelaskan ajaran "sesungguhnya".

Bonus: Kisah antagonis Devadatta tidak ada dalam Mahasangika dan turunannya, hanya ada pada kubu Sthaviravada. Mungkin ada yang bisa kasih info tambahan?

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Re: Aneka Mitos Pengukuhan Sekte-sekte Buddhisme
« Reply #7 on: 12 November 2013, 11:24:03 AM »
mitos mengenai tercerahkannya siddharta oleh alat musik yang terlalu kencang atau kendur.

kalau ketika lahir berjalan 7 langkah trus ngomong, itu mitos bukan?

eh ga nyambung sama pengukuhan sekte ya :D
Janganlah memperhatikan kesalahan dan hal-hal yang telah atau belum dikerjakan oleh diri sendiri. Tetapi, perhatikanlah apa yang telah dikerjakan dan apa yang belum dikerjakan oleh orang lain =))

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Re: Aneka Mitos Pengukuhan Sekte-sekte Buddhisme
« Reply #8 on: 12 November 2013, 11:29:31 AM »
[at] Shinichi & yang lain:

Ada beberapa mitos yang saya belum banyak baca/dengar, kalau ingat atau punya sumbernya, boleh dishare:

*Konsili tandingan Mahayana, eksklusif bodhisatva, dipimpin Samantabhadra dengan pembacaan vinaya oleh Maitreya, pembacaan sutra oleh Vajrapani, dan abhidharma oleh Manjusri.
*"Wawancara" Maitreya oleh tokoh Yogacara, Asanga.
*Yajnavalkya orang yang mendengar langsung ajaran Buddha yang dalam lalu masuk meditasi selama ratusan tahun, dan bangun lagi di masa orang-orang belajar cuma "kulit-kulitnya ajaran Buddha" dan menjelaskan ajaran "sesungguhnya".

Bonus: Kisah antagonis Devadatta tidak ada dalam Mahasangika dan turunannya, hanya ada pada kubu Sthaviravada. Mungkin ada yang bisa kasih info tambahan?

Nanti coba gw cek lagi, beberapa kayaknya pernah dengar dan ada sumbernya di inet ;D

mitos mengenai tercerahkannya siddharta oleh alat musik yang terlalu kencang atau kendur.

kalau ketika lahir berjalan 7 langkah trus ngomong, itu mitos bukan?

eh ga nyambung sama pengukuhan sekte ya :D

Iya OOT tuh :))
"Holmes once said not to allow your judgement to be biased by personal qualities, and emotional qualities are antagonistic to clear reasoning."
~ Shinichi Kudo a.k.a Conan Edogawa

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Re: Aneka Mitos Pengukuhan Sekte-sekte Buddhisme
« Reply #9 on: 12 November 2013, 11:46:54 AM »
Sekte itu didefinisikan apa dulu?

Yg saya bisa langsung ingat: mitos pendirian aliran Zen.
Buddha menghirup wangi bunga dan Mahakasyapa tersenyum.

Aliran Yogacara
Arya Asanga dibawa oleh Maitreya ke surga Tusita dan menerima ajaran disana

Memang definisi sekte ini agak-agak 'buram'. Ada juga kasus di vihara sama tapi orang-orangnya punya pendapat yang berbeda, dikenali sebagai kelompok berbeda, dan akhirnya jadi sekte tersendiri. Biasa tidak ada pengukuhan separasi atau organisasi seperti sekarang, tapi untuk kemudahan, kita pakai ukuran umum saja, yaitu yang punya sistem pengajaran yang beda/khas. 

Yang kisah Asanga itu, bisa minta rujukannya? Saya memang lagi cari juga.


untuk aliran-aliran belakangan yg merupakan cabang, kadang mitos itu bukan mitos tentang Buddha, tetapi mitos tentang guru pendiri aliran tersebut. Jadi memang ga ada di literatur awal
Iya, biasanya berhubungan dengan guru/tokoh alirannya, dan beberapa menyinggung tentang masa Buddha seperti kitab alam naga itu menyangkut Buddha mengajarkan langsung, tapi tersimpan di alam naga dan diambil Nagarjuna.

Terlepas dari itu, kalau memang ada info tentang mitos2 yang berhubungan dengan pengukuhan sekte, boleh juga dishare untuk info kita semua. :)


---
mitos mengenai tercerahkannya siddharta oleh alat musik yang terlalu kencang atau kendur.

kalau ketika lahir berjalan 7 langkah trus ngomong, itu mitos bukan?

eh ga nyambung sama pengukuhan sekte ya :D
Iya, yang musik itu mitos seputar pengukuhan kenikmatan indria berlabel dhamma, dan yang 7 langkah itu mungkin untuk menambah kesan luar biasa, tapi sepertinya ga hubungan dengan sekte tertentu.


---
Nanti coba gw cek lagi, beberapa kayaknya pernah dengar dan ada sumbernya di inet ;D
Sip, thanks.

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Re: Aneka Mitos Pengukuhan Sekte-sekte Buddhisme
« Reply #10 on: 12 November 2013, 11:57:02 AM »
[at] Shinichi & yang lain:

Ada beberapa mitos yang saya belum banyak baca/dengar, kalau ingat atau punya sumbernya, boleh dishare:

*Konsili tandingan Mahayana, eksklusif bodhisatva, dipimpin Samantabhadra dengan pembacaan vinaya oleh Maitreya, pembacaan sutra oleh Vajrapani, dan abhidharma oleh Manjusri.
*"Wawancara" Maitreya oleh tokoh Yogacara, Asanga.
*Yajnavalkya orang yang mendengar langsung ajaran Buddha yang dalam lalu masuk meditasi selama ratusan tahun, dan bangun lagi di masa orang-orang belajar cuma "kulit-kulitnya ajaran Buddha" dan menjelaskan ajaran "sesungguhnya".

Bonus: Kisah antagonis Devadatta tidak ada dalam Mahasangika dan turunannya, hanya ada pada kubu Sthaviravada. Mungkin ada yang bisa kasih info tambahan?

Abang serius? saya baru dengar nih ada konsili ini.

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Re: Aneka Mitos Pengukuhan Sekte-sekte Buddhisme
« Reply #11 on: 12 November 2013, 12:32:08 PM »
gimana dengan mitos kunjungan Sang Buddha ke srilanka?
* I'm trying to free your mind, Neo. But I can only show you the door. You're the one that has to walk through it
* Neo, sooner or later you're going to realize just as I did that there's a difference between knowing the path and walking the path

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Re: Aneka Mitos Pengukuhan Sekte-sekte Buddhisme
« Reply #12 on: 12 November 2013, 12:56:30 PM »
gimana dengan mitos kunjungan Sang Buddha ke srilanka?

it rings the bell in my head. Apakah ada literatur non-theravada yg mencantumkan kisah ini? dan jika Sang Buddha pergi jauh, biasanya ada khotbah yg dibabarkan dan ada orang yg berhasil tercerahkan, seharusnya kisah ini ada tercatat dalam sutta, tapi bahkan sutta Pali pun tidak ada mencatat peristiwa ini.

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Re: Aneka Mitos Pengukuhan Sekte-sekte Buddhisme
« Reply #13 on: 12 November 2013, 01:05:30 PM »
gimana dengan mitos kunjungan Sang Buddha ke srilanka?

Itu cuma ada di Mahavamsa, teks aliran Theravada yg sifatnya sektarian.
"Holmes once said not to allow your judgement to be biased by personal qualities, and emotional qualities are antagonistic to clear reasoning."
~ Shinichi Kudo a.k.a Conan Edogawa

Offline xenocross

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Re: Aneka Mitos Pengukuhan Sekte-sekte Buddhisme
« Reply #14 on: 12 November 2013, 01:09:06 PM »
The Universal Vehicle
Discourse Literature
{Mahäyänasüträlamkärd)
By Maitreyanätha/Äryäsanga
Together with its Commentary (Bhäsya)
By Vasubandhu

Translated from the Sanskrit, Tibetan, and Chinese by
L. Jamspal, R. Clark, J. Wilson, L. Zwilling, M. Sweet, R. Thurman
Honorary Editor: Gadjin Nagao
Editor-in-Chief: Robert A.E Thurman
Editing and Design: Thomas E Yarnall

Tanjur Translation Initiative
Treasury of the Buddhist Sciences series
A refereed series published by the
American Institute of Buddhist Studies
at Columbia University, New York
Co-published with
Columbia University's Center for Buddhist Studies
and Tibet House US
2004

Returning now to the revelation of The Universal Vehicle Discourse Literature
itself, the legend runs that Asanga withdrew from society to propitiate the future
Buddha Maitreya out of intense dissatisfaction with the prevailing interpretations of
Buddha Dharma in his day, seeing the individual vehicle scientific treatises of Abhidharma
as too realistic and dualistic, and the Centrist treatises of Nagarjuna and
Aryadeva as too nihilistic and frightening, for many of his contemporaries. He felt
he could not evolve a middle way between these extremes merely by tinkering with
interpretations. He needed a whole new inspiration, a complete new synthesis. So
he sought the aid of Maitreyanatha, the spiritual savior of Tushita's Joyous Mind
Dharma Center.

Maitreyanatha's inspiration {pranetrtva) was forthcoming, and Asanga became
the "medium" or "channeling speaker" (vaktf) for his "Five Teachings": the
" Two Literatures" {alarhkära) - the Discourse Literature {MSA) and the Realization
Literature (AA); the "Two Analyses/' one unpacking the three realities (MAY) and one the two realities (DDV) ; and the Jewel Gene Analysis (RGV), a treatise on the most positive Buddhology elaborated, following the Lotus and Great Ultimate Nirvana discourses in emphasizing the ultimate immanence of the perfection of enlightenment.

To further elaborate these seminal, inspired works, Asanga added the
more technical Bodhisattva Stages (BBh) to his Abhidharmic Disciple Stages (SBh),
with the Five Condensations (samgraham) as subcommentaries; he wrote his own
commentary on the Jewel Gene Analysis, grounding himself on the newly rediscovered
Elucidation of the Intention Discourse; and he wrote his two compendia,
Universal Vehicle Summary (MS) and Clear Science Compendium (AS). In addition,
Asanga's lectures to his circle are reflected in the commentaries and subcommentaries
of Vasubandhu, Sthiramati, Arya Vimuktasena, Gunaprabha, Dignaga, and
other luminaries of the school.

From all this work inspired by Maitreyanatha emerged the full elucidation of
the "magnificent" (udära) stage of the bodhisattva path, systematically presenting
the socially and cosmologically positive implications of the universal vehicle discourses
to the cultured Gupta public. Coming from the frontier crossroads town of
Takshashila, Asanga and Vasubandhu were as well-versed in Vedist culture as in
Buddhist culture, and also perhaps the international culture of the Central Asian
kingdoms. Thus, just as their contemporary, Augustine of Hippo, was able to articulate
the Christian vision of sin and salvation in mainstream terms for Greco-
Roman culture, so they, under Maitreyanatha's charismatic inspiration, articulated
the Buddha's universal vehicle messianic vision in mainstream terms for Gupta
Vedist culture.



2. The Author of the Literature

Maitreyanatha and Aryasanga
There has been much argument about the author of the Literature. In the
Buddhist scholarly tradition, including in India, Tibet, and East Asia, the work is
accepted as authored by the celestial bodhisattva Maitreya, called Natha, meaning
"spiritual intercessor," or more simply "savior," channeling his summary of the universal
vehicle teaching by the yogi and scholar, Aryasanga (ca. 294-376 CE).6 The
book is thus considered a kind of "divine revelation," yet it is not included in the
"Scripture" collection (Kanjur) in Tibet, along with the discourses of Shakyamuni
Buddha; rather, it is included in the "Scientific Treatise" (Tanjur) collection. This is
because the tenth-stage bodhisattva Maitreya, though embodied in his last prebuddhahood
life as a divine teacher in the Tushita heaven of the desire realm, is still
not quite a perfect buddha, not completely enlightened, and so he draws on Shakyamuni's
discourses, extracts literary gems from them, and elucidates them in the
same manner as all the human philosopher yogin sages, such as Nagarjuna and
Asanga himself.

In more modern times, Eastern and Western scholars debated the subject of
the Literature s authorship at length. Professor Sylvain Lévi, our distinguished
predecessor who translated the Literature and its commentary into French from
Sanskrit and published it in 1911, considered that the Maitreyan inspiration story
was good enough to be accepted as indicating Asanga's own report of his source of
divine inspiration. Subsequently, the great Japanese philologist Ui Hakuju disagreed
and argued that Maitreyanatha was an otherwise unknown human person, the personal
teacher of Asanga and a human author in his own right. Professor Paul
Demiéville came to the defense of Lévi, arguing that the Maitreyanatha story does
fairly indicate Asanga's source of inspiration, but that Asanga himself is the author.
The colophons of the extant Sanskrit edition and of the Tibetan translation give the
author's name as Vyavadatasamaya (Chin, ji-ging-jing shi = very pure time; Tib.
rtogs pa mam par byang ba = pure realization, as in Skt. abhisamaya, Tib. mngon
rtogs), which is probably the name of Maitreya as a divinity in Tushita (as Shakyamuni
Buddha, named early in his human life as Siddhartha Gautama, was known
as Shvetaketu in his immediately previous life as a Dharma king among the Tushita
deities).

We agree that nothing in history can be known with absolute certainty. We
do uphold the principle, however, that if there is no clear evidence to the contrary,
one cannot discount a traditional attribution merely as a metaphysical ideology.
Thus, the modern prejudice that a celestial being named Maitreyanatha, renowned
as the bodhisattva who is the next buddha on Earth, waiting in Tushita heaven,
could not exist since there are no celestial beings, there are no heavens in the desire
realm, there is no such thing as a genuine revelation, and so on, is nothing but a
prejudice, a bit of modernist, materialist, secularist ideology, no more and no less
rational than the belief in all of the above. After all, in our very modern age, in the
world of roaring printing presses and bookstore chains, there are quite a few books
believed to be "channeled" by a human writer, the authorship of which is attributed
to various sorts of celestial beings, including Atlantean warriors, angels,
Christ, mystics, guides, deceased Tibetan Lamas, even "God" himself, and so forth.

Among these books, there are no doubt both genuine and spurious examples, but
they are not that unusual. Why should there not be many such traditions in a yogic,
spiritual culture such as that of classical India? Therefore, it is my position that the
traditional account is the best working hypothesis, until someone comes up with
solid evidence to disprove it. Maitreya the bodhisattva is thus considered to be the
author, Asanga the channel medium and writer, and Vasubandhu, Asanga's younger
brother, the author of the "word commentary" we translate herein. Putting it this
way allows us to put forth a new theory of the first few verses — that they are a preface
written by the medium, Asanga, with the actual work beginning from the
chapter on the "Authenticity of the Universal Vehicle." Asanga's own commentary
to the Discourse Literature seems to me to be the Bodhisattva Stages.
So, how does the story go of this unusual revelatory composition of the Discourse Literature?

Maitreyanatha is a celestial bodhisattva, one of the "eight close children" of
the Buddha Shakyamuni. He is believed to be next in line to emanate an incarnation
on Earth some thousands of years in the future. The second part of his name,
"Natha," means "protective intercessor" in the spiritual sense, meaning one who
protects beings from rebirth in hells, pretan, or animal realms. Since this is a much
greater sort of protection than mere defense against mundane dangers, I translate it
by the Western spiritual term, "savior."

Maitreya is referred to as the "Regent" of the Buddha Shakyamuni, ruling in
his stead in the Tushita heaven wherein all buddhas live their last lives as divine
bodhisattva teachers, at the mid-point of their descent from the highest heaven
Akanishtha into the world of human beings on the planet Earth. He will continue
that regency until such time as evolution brings our world to the point of readiness
to receive his buddha-mission. According to legends, this will be many centuries in
the future, when the human lifespan has increased again to many thousands of
years, and when the planet will be entirely dominated by a benevolent "Wheel-
Turning" Sovereign named Shankha. Maitreya will be born the son of a Brahmin
priest, unlike the warrior-class Shakyamuni. The world in his time will be politically
centralized, and, therefore, the warrior caste and its virtues will be obsolete. He
will renounce the world and attain enlightenment in a single day, not requiring six
long years of meditative asceticism, as did Shakyamuni. His teaching will not deviate
from that of previous buddhas.

It is considered (especially in the Tibetan tradition, with the Chinese and
Japanese traditions agreeing in general, although differing in particulars) that
Maitreya authored five great treatises, using the Noble Asanga as a scribe, three of
which expand on the Elucidation of the Intention and the Visit to Lanka Discourses of
Shakyamuni to establish them as the basis of the idealistic school of universal
vehicle philosophy, the Idealist (Vijnänavädin) or Experientialist (Yogäcärin) school

Tibetan sources allege that Asanga's mother was a Buddhist nun who despaired
of the state of Buddhism in the India of her time and decided she must bear
sons who would renew its energies. First, from a warrior-class father, she gave birth
to Asanga; then, from a Brahmin-class father, Vasubandhu; and third, from a merchant
father, a son called Virincavatsa. The Chinese accounts have all three born
from the same father, a Brahmin of the Kaushika clan, but the Tibetan account
gives this rather more charming version of the mother's efforts to tap all aspects of
the gene pool. Asanga first joined the Vatsiputriya branch of the Sarvastivada school
and became a great teacher of the individual vehicle. He then heard of the universal
vehicle discourses and soon became fascinated by their teaching of universal compassion
and transcendent wisdom. He recognized therein the liberating teaching
that could bring Indian Buddhism into its glory. He received initiation into the
Mayajala Tantra and then set forth to contemplate great compassion, seeking to
enlist the mystic aid of the supernal bodhisattva Maitreyanatha. He reasoned that,
since the teaching of the late Shakyamuni Buddha was already so poorly understood
and practiced throughout the land, the future buddha, believed to reside in the
Tushita heaven of the desire realm, should be requested to make an anticipatory
visit to the planet to revive the Dharma in Asanga's own day and age.

Leaving his home monastery in Takshashila, near present-day Peshawar,
Asanga meditated for twelve long years on universal compassion and on the invocation
of Lord Maitreya. At last, frustrated by the failure of his invocation, he abandoned
his quest. His faith and his sense of self-worth utterly shattered, he wandered
forth from the cave a broken man. He stopped near the first town at the sight of an
old female dog who was suffering terribly from suppurating wounds all over her
hindquarters. He became absorbed in the relatively simple task of trying to help at
least this one sentient being. If only he could bring even temporary relief to one
other being, perhaps his life would have served some purpose. As he was about to
clean her wound, he noticed her live flesh was already crawling with maggots, so he
could not help her without harming them. After several moments' thought, he took
a sharp shard and cut a piece of flesh from his own emaciated thigh, shrunken by
long asceticism, and placed it on the ground next to the dog. He planned to pick
off the maggots one by one and place them on the fresh flesh. Unable to grasp them
with his fingers, he put out his tongue to lick them off. As he neared the foulsmelling
dog's wound, he was overwhelmed by revulsion, and, closing his eyes, had
to force himself to go through with the operation. Suddenly there was a kind of soft
explosion in front of his face, and when he started back and opened his eyes, he
beheld the bodhisattva Maitreya standing before him, radiant in a rainbow aura.
Overwhelmed with faith and joy, he prostrated himself at the Lord's feet over and
over again.


All too quickly recovering his composure, he complained to Maitreya and
asked him why he had been so slow to respond to his ardent invocations. Maitreya
replied that he had always been right in front of Asanga, but that, as the yogi himself
had persistently been caught up in self-involvement and had not yet generated
great compassion, he had been unable to see him. After all, Maitreya is the incarnation
of love, and only those capable of great compassion can perceive love, even
when it is right before them. Asanga was not utterly convinced by this explanation,
so Maitreya shrunk himself into a small globe of light and permitted Asanga to
carry him through the town to show him to the populace. Asanga, heedless of his
gaunt appearance and even his bleeding thigh, did as he was told and ran joyfully
through the town proclaiming the advent of the future buddha. The townspeople looked wonderingly at what they saw as a crazed yogi from the forest, bleeding and tattered, running around with a contemptible, sick dog on his shoulder, shouting about the future buddha. They drove him promptly from the town.

Fortunately, the bodhisattva used his supernatural power to take Asanga with him up to the
Tushita heaven, where he instructed him in the universal vehicle teachings. These
teachings were brought back to the human plane in the form of the Five Maitreya
Treatises (as mentioned above, the MSA, MAV, DDV,AAA, and RGV).
Satu saat dari pikiran yang dikuasai amarah membakar kebaikan yang telah dikumpulkan selama berkalpa-kalpa.
~ Mahavairocana Sutra

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Re: Aneka Mitos Pengukuhan Sekte-sekte Buddhisme
« Reply #15 on: 12 November 2013, 01:19:03 PM »
Itu cuma ada di Mahavamsa, teks aliran Theravada yg sifatnya sektarian.

Tapi teks mahayana juga ada, Lankavatara Sutra (Sutra turun ke Lanka). Settingnya di Lanka

"Thus have I heard. The Blessed One once stayed in the Castle of Laṅkā which is situated on the peak of Mount Malaya on the great ocean, and which is adorned with flowers made of jewels of various kinds.2 He was with a large assembly of Bhikshus and with a great multitude of Bodhisattvas, who had come together from various Buddha-lands."
Satu saat dari pikiran yang dikuasai amarah membakar kebaikan yang telah dikumpulkan selama berkalpa-kalpa.
~ Mahavairocana Sutra

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Re: Aneka Mitos Pengukuhan Sekte-sekte Buddhisme
« Reply #16 on: 12 November 2013, 01:20:58 PM »
Tapi teks mahayana juga ada, Lankavatara Sutra (Sutra turun ke Lanka). Settingnya di Lanka

"Thus have I heard. The Blessed One once stayed in the Castle of Laṅkā which is situated on the peak of Mount Malaya on the great ocean, and which is adorned with flowers made of jewels of various kinds.2 He was with a large assembly of Bhikshus and with a great multitude of Bodhisattvas, who had come together from various Buddha-lands."

Ooh ya, ada juga Lankavatara Sutra. Tapi ini juga sektarian Mahayana karena tidak ada dalam literatur awal (Empat Nikaya/Agama) :)
« Last Edit: 12 November 2013, 01:35:25 PM by Shinichi »
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Re: Aneka Mitos Pengukuhan Sekte-sekte Buddhisme
« Reply #17 on: 12 November 2013, 01:38:44 PM »
Ooh ya, ada juga Lankavatara Sutra. Tapi ini juga sektarian Mahayana :)

wah pasti yg ini yang bener, bukan yg mahavamsa. Soalnya nyebut tokoh sejarah lain, raja rakshasa Ravana.....
pokoknya yg ini yg asli, yg lain salah :D

trus konsili ke-4 Raja Kanishka di Afganistan itu mitos atau bukan?
Satu saat dari pikiran yang dikuasai amarah membakar kebaikan yang telah dikumpulkan selama berkalpa-kalpa.
~ Mahavairocana Sutra

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Re: Aneka Mitos Pengukuhan Sekte-sekte Buddhisme
« Reply #18 on: 12 November 2013, 02:03:05 PM »
wah pasti yg ini yang bener, bukan yg mahavamsa. Soalnya nyebut tokoh sejarah lain, raja rakshasa Ravana.....
pokoknya yg ini yg asli, yg lain salah :D

Ravana bukannya tokoh dalam Ramayana?
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Re: Aneka Mitos Pengukuhan Sekte-sekte Buddhisme
« Reply #19 on: 12 November 2013, 02:36:26 PM »
Abang serius? saya baru dengar nih ada konsili ini.
Iya, kisah konsili tandingan itu biasanya ada di kalangan Mahayana untuk menjawab pertanyaan kenapa waktu konsili I tidak ada disinggung sutra-sutra Mahayana.

---

 [at] Xenocross

Thanks buat info sumber tentang Asanga.

Untuk yang Lankavatara, Sutra itu sendiri juga adalah literatur belakangan (kisaran 3 CE), dan pada masa itu memang Theravada Mahayana juga berkembang di Srilanka sebelum akhirnya Theravada non-Mahayana mendapat dukungan dari penguasa dan menyingkirkan pengaruh Mahayana.

Jadi dilihat dari munculnya, memang bisa diketahui ini juga mitos sektarian belakangan untuk mendukung paham "Alayavijnana".


trus konsili ke-4 Raja Kanishka di Afganistan itu mitos atau bukan?
Bukannya di Kashmir yah? Itu bukan mitos, memang Sarvastivada Vaibhasika mengadakan konsili 4 sendiri, terpisah dengan yang Theravada.
« Last Edit: 12 November 2013, 03:03:34 PM by Kainyn_Kutho »

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Re: Aneka Mitos Pengukuhan Sekte-sekte Buddhisme
« Reply #20 on: 12 November 2013, 03:40:42 PM »
Abang serius? saya baru dengar nih ada konsili ini.

Belum ketemu sumber aslinya, tetapi ada di sebuah blog: http://www.becsurabaya.org/artikel/artikel-buddhis/53-konsili-mahayana.html
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Re: Aneka Mitos Pengukuhan Sekte-sekte Buddhisme
« Reply #21 on: 12 November 2013, 03:45:06 PM »
 [at]  all:

Menariknya menurut Vinaya Sarvastivada, ada penyebutan sutra yang dibabarkan di istana naga dan di surga dalam Konsili Pertama:

The Vinaya Text of the Sarvâstivâda School.--Mahâkâçyapa and the five hundred Bhikshus kept the assembly in the Pippâla Cave. He announced that as Bhikshus in coming generations would be inferior in their natural endowment (literally, root, mûla?) and lacking in the power of concentration, the assembly would first compile, for the sake of such, the Gâthâs (verses)[2] in which the Sûtra, Vinaya and Abhidharma[3] were treated in comprehensive brevity. This was done before the meal. They then proceeded to compile the Sûtras. Ânanda was requested by Mahâkâçyapa as well as by the Samgha to select and compile them. Having gone through due formality and having reflected on the impermanence of things, he thought: "Among those Sûtras which I heard personally from Buddha, some are traditional,[4] some are preachings in the Nâga (Serpent) Palace,[5] others are preachings in the heavens.

Catatan Kaki no. 5:

5 This statement is most significant, for many Mahâyâna texts are said to have been taken from the Nâga Palace where they were long preserved in secret. The Vinaya text of the Sarvâstivâda is generally considered to belong to the Hînayâna work, and this fact makes the above statement much more mysterious. Is the Nâga Palace an ideal creation of later Buddhists? or is it some yet unknown region in the Himâlaya? [Buddha converted several yakkhas, nâgas, etc.--Edmunds.]]

Sumber: The First Buddhist Council
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Re: Aneka Mitos Pengukuhan Sekte-sekte Buddhisme
« Reply #22 on: 12 November 2013, 04:26:07 PM »

[...] the assembly would first compile, for the sake of such, the Gâthâs (verses)[2] in which the Sûtra, Vinaya and Abhidharma[3] were treated in comprehensive brevity. This was done before the meal. They then proceeded to compile the Sûtras. Ânanda was requested by Mahâkâçyapa as well as by the Samgha to select and compile them.
Ini menarik juga, sepertinya ada terjadi pemisahan sutra "Agama" yang diulang sebelum makan siang, dan sutra "Mahayana" setelah makan siang. Terlebih lagi ada pengulangan "Abhidharma" yang mana 3 dari 7 kitabnya dibuat oleh siswa belakangan (masa 100-300 tahun setelah mahaparinirvana).


Quote
Having gone through due formality and having reflected on the impermanence of things, he thought: "Among those Sûtras which I heard personally from Buddha, some are traditional,[4] some are preachings in the Nâga (Serpent) Palace,[5] others are preachings in the heavens.
Ini lebih menarik lagi.

Bayangkan kalau kita adalah satu perguruan generasi pertama, guru kita baru meninggal dan kita kompilasi ajarannya. Apakah sebagai generasi pertama akan menyebut ajaran yang baru akan dikompilasi itu sebagai tradisional (ajaran turun-temurun)?

Sepertinya ini komentar vinaya Sarvastivada yah? Ada perkiraan tahun penulisannya ga?

Terlepas dari hal-hal di atas, memang mungkin juga kisah-kisah ini yang menginspirasi pembentukan mitos belakangan pengajaran alam naga di Mahayana sebagaimana juga halnya pengajaran Tavatimsa. Tapi ironis juga kalau benar kisah itu meminjam literatur Sarvastivada, sebab isi kitab alam naga itu pada prinsipnya adalah membantah Abhidharmanya Sarvastivada.

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Re: Aneka Mitos Pengukuhan Sekte-sekte Buddhisme
« Reply #23 on: 12 November 2013, 05:04:23 PM »
Ini menarik juga, sepertinya ada terjadi pemisahan sutra "Agama" yang diulang sebelum makan siang, dan sutra "Mahayana" setelah makan siang. Terlebih lagi ada pengulangan "Abhidharma" yang mana 3 dari 7 kitabnya dibuat oleh siswa belakangan (masa 100-300 tahun setelah mahaparinirvana).

Kalo gw gak salah mengartikan yang sebelum makan siang itu adalah pengulangan syair-syair (gatha) yang merupakan ringkasan dari ketiga Pitaka:

[...] the assembly would first compile, for the sake of such, the Gâthâs (verses)[2] in which the Sûtra, Vinaya and Abhidharma[3] were treated in comprehensive brevity. This was done before the meal. They then proceeded to compile the Sûtras. Ânanda was requested by Mahâkâçyapa as well as by the Samgha to select and compile them.

Baru setelah ini mereka memulai mengumpulkan sutra-sutra yang terdiri dari sutra tradisional (empat Nikaya awal?), sutra yang diajarkan di istana naga, dan di surga. Kemudian baru Vinaya dan Abhidharma disusun. Coba baca kisah lengkapnya pada link tsb.

Quote
Ini lebih menarik lagi.

Bayangkan kalau kita adalah satu perguruan generasi pertama, guru kita baru meninggal dan kita kompilasi ajarannya. Apakah sebagai generasi pertama akan menyebut ajaran yang baru akan dikompilasi itu sebagai tradisional (ajaran turun-temurun)?

Komentar penerjemahnya:

Does this mean that Buddha preached on some traditional subjects, or that some Sûtras deal with traditions, or that the first sermons of Buddha, such as were delivered for the five Bhikshus in Vârânasî before the conversion of Ânanda, were heard by him afterwards from Buddha's own mouth, or from those who were then present, in which case the term tradition would be used in the sense of hearsay? Judging from similar passages in some other works, the last sense seems to be most preferable.

Quote
Sepertinya ini komentar vinaya Sarvastivada yah? Ada perkiraan tahun penulisannya ga?

The Mûlasarvâstivâda-nikâya-vinaya-samyuktavastu (the miscellaneous part of the Vinaya-text of the Sarvâstivâda school): Case Han, fas. II., pp. 87-93. (Translated by I-tsing, A.D. 710. 40 fasciculi.)

Quote
Terlepas dari hal-hal di atas, memang mungkin juga kisah-kisah ini yang menginspirasi pembentukan mitos belakangan pengajaran alam naga di Mahayana sebagaimana juga halnya pengajaran Tavatimsa. Tapi ironis juga kalau benar kisah itu meminjam literatur Sarvastivada, sebab isi kitab alam naga itu pada prinsipnya adalah membantah Abhidharmanya Sarvastivada.

Atau kemungkinan lain bahwa literatur (Mula-)Sarvastivada tsb dipengaruhi oleh gagasan Mahayanis yang belakangan seperti halnya yang terjadi dengan Ekottara Agama.
« Last Edit: 12 November 2013, 05:06:15 PM by Shinichi »
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Re: Aneka Mitos Pengukuhan Sekte-sekte Buddhisme
« Reply #24 on: 13 November 2013, 10:47:34 AM »
Kalo gw gak salah mengartikan yang sebelum makan siang itu adalah pengulangan syair-syair (gatha) yang merupakan ringkasan dari ketiga Pitaka:

[...] the assembly would first compile, for the sake of such, the Gâthâs (verses)[2] in which the Sûtra, Vinaya and Abhidharma[3] were treated in comprehensive brevity. This was done before the meal. They then proceeded to compile the Sûtras. Ânanda was requested by Mahâkâçyapa as well as by the Samgha to select and compile them.

Baru setelah ini mereka memulai mengumpulkan sutra-sutra yang terdiri dari sutra tradisional (empat Nikaya awal?), sutra yang diajarkan di istana naga, dan di surga. Kemudian baru Vinaya dan Abhidharma disusun. Coba baca kisah lengkapnya pada link tsb.
Ya, sepertinya kira-kira gitu. Menarik sih, tapi belum bisa disimpulkan definisinya juga yah, jadi saya skip saja deh.


Quote
Komentar penerjemahnya:

Does this mean that Buddha preached on some traditional subjects, or that some Sûtras deal with traditions, or that the first sermons of Buddha, such as were delivered for the five Bhikshus in Vârânasî before the conversion of Ânanda, were heard by him afterwards from Buddha's own mouth, or from those who were then present, in which case the term tradition would be used in the sense of hearsay? Judging from similar passages in some other works, the last sense seems to be most preferable.
Memang banyak kemungkinan. Untuk yang (b), kalau dalam tradisi Theravada, Buddha kan mengulang khotbah di mana Ananda tidak ada (sewaktu nego jadi pelayan tetap), jadi seharusnya walaupun Buddha khotbah ke X yang kemudian meneruskan ke Ananda, sesuai perjanjiannya, Buddha pun mengulang ke Ananda (karena waktu khotbah ke X, Ananda tidak hadir).


Quote
The Mûlasarvâstivâda-nikâya-vinaya-samyuktavastu (the miscellaneous part of the Vinaya-text of the Sarvâstivâda school): Case Han, fas. II., pp. 87-93. (Translated by I-tsing, A.D. 710. 40 fasciculi.)

Atau kemungkinan lain bahwa literatur (Mula-)Sarvastivada tsb dipengaruhi oleh gagasan Mahayanis yang belakangan seperti halnya yang terjadi dengan Ekottara Agama.
Mula-Sarvastivada setahu saya memang beda dengan Sarvastivada, kemunculannya lebih belakangan.

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Re: Aneka Mitos Pengukuhan Sekte-sekte Buddhisme
« Reply #25 on: 13 November 2013, 07:23:42 PM »
Mula-Sarvastivada setahu saya memang beda dengan Sarvastivada, kemunculannya lebih belakangan.


Iya, berbeda. Karena di link tentang first buddhist council itu, penulisnya menganggap keduanya sama, jadi gw terjebak ;D

Asal usul Mulasarvastivada sendiri sampai saat ini belum jelas:

Quote
Sekitar 500-1000 tahun setelah Parinibbana Sang Buddha muncul aliran Mulasarvastivada (Sarvastivada akar) dan Vinaya-nya digunakan dalam aliran Mahayana Tibet saat ini. Menurut catatan Yijing, Mulasarvastivada juga berkembang di kerajaan Sriwijaya pada abad ke-7 M. Namun demikian, asal-usul aliran ini dan hubungannya dengan aliran Sarvastivada masih belum terungkap oleh para ahli. Menurut Bhikkhu Sujato dalam Sects and Sectarianism:

Ketidakpastian mengenai aliran ini telah membawa pada sejumlah hipotesis. Teori Frauwallner menyatakan bahwa Vinaya Mūlasarvāstivāda adalah aturan disiplin dari komunitas Buddhis awal yang berbasis di Mathura, yang sangat independen dalam perkembangannya sebagai komunitas monastik dari Sarvāstivādin dari Kaśmir (walaupun tentu saja ini tidak berarti mereka berbeda dalam hal ajaran). Lamotte, berlawanan dengan Frauwallner, menyatakan bahwa Vinaya Mūlasarvāstivāda adalah penyusunan Kaśmīr yang belakangan untuk melengkapi Vinaya Sarvāstivāda. Warder menyatakan bahwa Mūlasarvāstivādin adalah perkembangan belakangan dari Sarvāstivāda, yang inovasi utamanya adalah tulisan, penyusunan Vinaya yang besar dan Saddharmasmṛtyupasthāna Sūtra, yang mengandung ajaran-ajaran awal tetapi membawa gaya tetap up to date pada masa perkembangan tulisan yang sezaman. Enomoto menarik kesimpulan dari semua teori ini dengan menyatakan bahwa Sarvāstivādin dan Mūlasarvāstivādin sebenarnya adalah sama. Sementara itu, Willemen, Dessein, dan Cox telah mengembangkan teori bahwa Sautrantika, suatu cabang atau kecenderungan dalam kelompok aliran Sarvāstivādin, muncul di Gandhāra dan Bactria sekitar tahun 200 M. Walaupun mereka adalah kelompok yang paling awal, mereka secara sementara kehilangan tanah pada aliran Kaśmīr Vaibhāśika disebabkan oleh pengaruh politik Kaṇiṣka. Dalam tahun-tahun belakangan Sautrantika menjadi dikenal sebagai Mūlasarvāstivādin dan mendapatkan kembali pengaruhnya.[254] Saya telah di tempat lain memberikan alasan saya untuk tidak setuju dengan teori dari Enomoto dan Willemen dkk. Baik Warder ataupun Lamotte tidak memberikan cukup bukti untuk mendukung teori mereka. Kita disisakan dengan teori Frauwallner, yang dalam hal ini bertahan dalam uji waktu.

Sekilas tentang Aliran-Aliran Buddhisme Awal
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Re: Aneka Mitos Pengukuhan Sekte-sekte Buddhisme
« Reply #26 on: 14 November 2013, 07:27:54 PM »

Bonus: Kisah antagonis Devadatta tidak ada dalam Mahasangika dan turunannya, hanya ada pada kubu Sthaviravada. Mungkin ada yang bisa kasih info tambahan?

Untuk kisah Devadatta sebenarnya juga ditemukan dalam Vinaya Mahasanghika walaupun dengan detail yang berbeda dengan Vinaya Sthaviravada:

Quote
Devad­atta as schis­matic in the Mahāsaṅghika Vinaya

Con­trary to Ray’s claim that ‘there is no over­lap between the Mahāsaṅghika treat­ment [of Devad­atta] and that of the five [Sthavira] schools’ (170), the Mahāsaṅghika Vinaya depicts Devad­atta as the archetypal schis­matic, in much the same way as the Sthavira Vinayas. This pas­sage is found in the dis­cus­sion of the pāṭimokkha rule on schism. Devad­atta appears as a scoun­drel try­ing to divide the Sangha, just as in all other Vinayas.

The only rel­ev­ant dif­fer­ence is the grounds he is said to base his attempt on. Whereas the Sthavira Vinayas say he pro­mul­gated a set of ‘five points’, by which he tried to enforce an excess­ively ascetic life­style on the monks, the Mahāsaṅghika Vinaya omits the five points and attrib­utes a much more com­pre­hens­ive agenda to him. He cor­rup­ted the entire cor­pus of Buddhist lit­er­at­ure, includ­ing the twelve sut­ras,23 the vari­ous cat­egor­ies of Vinaya offences, and the nine class of scrip­ture (aṅgas). Not only did he change the texts, he taught the monks to use a dif­fer­ent script and diverse dialects.

[....]

But Ray’s prob­lems do not end there, for Devad­atta does in fact appear as a schis­matic in the Mahāsaṅghika Vinaya in the por­tions that are par­al­lel to the Sthavira Skand­hakas. There is a short para­graph depict­ing an epis­ode of the Devad­atta story, sim­ilar to that found in the Sthavira Vinayas. It describes how, intent on caus­ing a schism, he took 500 monks away with him, and the dis­cus­sion between the Buddha and Ānanda on this prob­lem. Ray over­looks this pas­sage, which under­mines his entire thesis.

http://santifm.org/santipada/2010/why-devadatta-was-no-saint/

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Offline K.K.

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Re: Aneka Mitos Pengukuhan Sekte-sekte Buddhisme
« Reply #27 on: 15 November 2013, 09:42:21 AM »
Untuk kisah Devadatta sebenarnya juga ditemukan dalam Vinaya Mahasanghika walaupun dengan detail yang berbeda dengan Vinaya Sthaviravada:

Quote
Devad­atta as schis­matic in the Mahāsaṅghika Vinaya

Con­trary to Ray’s claim that ‘there is no over­lap between the Mahāsaṅghika treat­ment [of Devad­atta] and that of the five [Sthavira] schools’ (170), the Mahāsaṅghika Vinaya depicts Devad­atta as the archetypal schis­matic, in much the same way as the Sthavira Vinayas. This pas­sage is found in the dis­cus­sion of the pāṭimokkha rule on schism. Devad­atta appears as a scoun­drel try­ing to divide the Sangha, just as in all other Vinayas.

The only rel­ev­ant dif­fer­ence is the grounds he is said to base his attempt on. Whereas the Sthavira Vinayas say he pro­mul­gated a set of ‘five points’, by which he tried to enforce an excess­ively ascetic life­style on the monks, the Mahāsaṅghika Vinaya omits the five points and attrib­utes a much more com­pre­hens­ive agenda to him. He cor­rup­ted the entire cor­pus of Buddhist lit­er­at­ure, includ­ing the twelve sut­ras,23 the vari­ous cat­egor­ies of Vinaya offences, and the nine class of scrip­ture (aṅgas). Not only did he change the texts, he taught the monks to use a dif­fer­ent script and diverse dialects.

[....]

But Ray’s prob­lems do not end there, for Devad­atta does in fact appear as a schis­matic in the Mahāsaṅghika Vinaya in the por­tions that are par­al­lel to the Sthavira Skand­hakas. There is a short para­graph depict­ing an epis­ode of the Devad­atta story, sim­ilar to that found in the Sthavira Vinayas. It describes how, intent on caus­ing a schism, he took 500 monks away with him, and the dis­cus­sion between the Buddha and Ānanda on this prob­lem. Ray over­looks this pas­sage, which under­mines his entire thesis.

http://santifm.org/santipada/2010/why-devadatta-was-no-saint/
Sip. Thanks infonya, Bang Shinichi.

Offline K.K.

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Re: Aneka Mitos Pengukuhan Sekte-sekte Buddhisme
« Reply #28 on: 19 December 2013, 10:44:08 AM »
Tambahan lagi dari Mahasanghika. Di jaman penguasa lalim, Buddhisme akan ditekan dan punah, oleh sebab itu Buddha menyuruh 500 Arahant menunda parinirvana dan mempertahankan dharma. Teks-teks ASLI diselundupkan oleh Bodhisatva Maitreya ke surga Tusita. Ketika jaman penguasa lalim berlalu, dikembalikan lagi ke alam manusia. Teks-teks ASLI inilah yang jadi pedoman Mahasanghika.


Offline xenocross

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Re: Aneka Mitos Pengukuhan Sekte-sekte Buddhisme
« Reply #29 on: 18 January 2014, 11:30:22 PM »
Itu cuma ada di Mahavamsa, teks aliran Theravada yg sifatnya sektarian.

Catatan tentang periode sewaktu Raja Asoka memerintah (ringkasan)

Di pulau Singhala hiduplah raja Asana-Singha-kosa. Seorang Saudagar mempersembahkan arca Buddha dari kayu kepadanya. Ia bertanya "apa ini?" Sang Saudagar menceritakan keagungan sang guru, para arahat hingga Arya Krsna. Raja ingin bertemu dengan Arya Krsna dan mengirim utusan. Arya Krsna datang dengan 500 pengikut dengan terbang ke angkasa ke perbatasan Singhala, dimana raja menyambut mereka. Arya Krsna mengajar selama tiga bulan di pulau itu, memenuhi tempat itu dengan biara2 dan banyak Sanggha. Dan menuntun banyak orang mencapai empat tingkat penyempurnaan

Walaupun pulau tersebut sudah pernah diberkahi oleh kaki Sang Guru, namun setelah Sang Guru memasuki Nirvana, Dharma di tempat itu akhirnya pudar. Tetapi Arya Krsna kembali menyebarluaskannya

dari buku Sejarah Buddhisme di India, karya Taranatha
Buku yang ditulis tahun 1608 di Tibet ini isinya mencatat banyak legenda yang menumbuhkan saddha terutama aliran Mahayana, walaupun secara sejarah masih banyak yang harus dikaji. Tetapi isinya banyak mencatat hal-hal menarik yang terselubung dalam mitos. Misalnya, mitos kaki Buddha di Sri Lanka ternyata juga diketahui oleh Buddhisme aliran lain dan dicatat dalam legenda mereka.

Catatan tambahan para ahli sejarah sebagai lampiran juga cukup tebal dan lumayan informatif
Satu saat dari pikiran yang dikuasai amarah membakar kebaikan yang telah dikumpulkan selama berkalpa-kalpa.
~ Mahavairocana Sutra

Offline dilbert

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Re: Aneka Mitos Pengukuhan Sekte-sekte Buddhisme
« Reply #30 on: 20 January 2014, 02:37:33 PM »
Dalam Vinaya Pitaka, Bhikkhuni Vibhnõga termaktublah satu peraturan kedisiplinan:

…PAÑHAM PUCCHEYYÂTI SUTTANTE OKÂSAM KÂRÂPETVÂ VINAYAM VÂ ABHIDHAMMAM VÂ PUCCHATI ÂPATTI PÂCITTIYASSA, VINAYE OKÂSAM KÂRÂPETVA SUTTANTAM VÂ ABHIDHAMMAM VÂ PUCCHATI ÂPATTI PÂCITTIYASSA, ABHIDHAMME OKÂSAM KÂRÂPETVA SUTTANTAM VÂ VINAYAM VÂ PUCCHATI ÂPATTI PÂCITTIYASSA...

Seorang bhikkhuni yang mengajukan suatu pertanyaan kepada bhikkhu haruslah sesuai dengan kesempatan yang dimohonkan. Apabila memohon kesempatan untuk mengajukan pertanyaan tentang Sutta tetapi kemudian berbalik mempertanyakan Vinaya atau Abhidhamma; bhikkhuni tersebut melanggar Pâcittiya.10) Apabila memohon kesempatan untuk mengajukan pertanyaan tentang Vinaya tetapi kemudian berbalik mempertanyakan Sutta atau Abhidhamma; bhikkhuni tersebut melanggar Pâcittiya. Apabila memohon kesempatan untuk mengajukan pertanyaan tentang Abhidhamma tetapi kemudian berbalik mempertanyakan Sutta atau Vinaya; bhikkhuni tersebut melangar Pâcittiya...

---

Diterangkan dengan sangat jelas...

Jika bertanya Sutta, kemudian  berbalik menanyakan Vinaya dan Abhidhamma = Pacitiya
Jika bertanya Vinaya, kemudian berbalik menanyakan Sutta dan Abhidhamma = Pacitiya
Jika bertanya Abhidhamma, kemudian berbalik menanyakan Sutta dan Vinaya = Pacitiya..

Kalau tidak jelas lagi pembagian kelompok studi seperti ini, cppddd... wwwkwkwk
« Last Edit: 20 January 2014, 02:39:05 PM by dilbert »
VAYADHAMMA SANKHARA APPAMADENA SAMPADETHA
Semua yang berkondisi tdak kekal adanya, berjuanglah dengan penuh kewaspadaan

Offline The Ronald

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Re: Aneka Mitos Pengukuhan Sekte-sekte Buddhisme
« Reply #31 on: 29 June 2014, 09:26:23 PM »


Bonus: Kisah antagonis Devadatta tidak ada dalam Mahasangika dan turunannya, hanya ada pada kubu Sthaviravada. Mungkin ada yang bisa kasih info tambahan?
http://www.sacred-texts.com/bud/lob/lob54.htm

kemungkinan besar sumbernya dari lokotaravada..turunan mahasangika...

btw mengenai "turunan" ini kadang turunannya bisa beda jauh dgn induknya..semisal theravada di thai..salah 1 turunannya dhammakaya...
...

Offline K.K.

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Re: Aneka Mitos Pengukuhan Sekte-sekte Buddhisme
« Reply #32 on: 30 June 2014, 09:01:38 AM »
http://www.sacred-texts.com/bud/lob/lob54.htm

kemungkinan besar sumbernya dari lokotaravada..turunan mahasangika...

btw mengenai "turunan" ini kadang turunannya bisa beda jauh dgn induknya..semisal theravada di thai..salah 1 turunannya dhammakaya...
Ya, Mahasangika bukan tidak mengenal sosok Devadatta ini tapi kisah-kisah dan "komentar" tidak dimasukkan ke dalam kumpulan kitab suci mereka. Kisah ini ada beredar dan dicatat dalam sekte turunannya.

Mahasangika -berlawanan dengan rumor yang beredar- adalah yang paling konservatif dalam mempertahankan kitab sucinya. Bisa dilihat mereka (dan turunannya) tidak meng-kanon-kan Abhidharma mereka. Juga dalam studi vinaya menjadi perhatian karena disetujui merupakan bentuk paling tua.

Spoiler: ShowHide
Wikipedia

Scholars have generally agreed that the matter of dispute was indeed a matter of vinaya, and have noted that the account of the Mahāsāṃghikas is bolstered by the vinaya texts themselves, as vinayas associated with the Sthaviras do contain more rules than those of the Mahāsāṃghika Vinaya.[8] Modern scholarship therefore generally agrees that the Mahāsāṃghika Vinaya is the oldest.[8] According to Skilton, future scholars may determine that a study of the Mahāsāṃghika school will contribute to a better understanding of the early Dharma-Vinaya than the Theravāda school.[9]

8. Skilton, Andrew. A Concise History of Buddhism. 2004. p. 48
9. Skilton, Andrew. A Concise History of Buddhism. 2004. p. 64


Kalau masalah 'turunan' memang bisa saja beda jauh sih. Kadang doktrinnya sama, tapi praktiknya beda-beda. Dhammakaya juga sepertinya begitu, secara doktrin dasar masih pakai turunan Mahavihara, tapi kemudian sudah berbelok mengikuti ajaran tokoh mereka yang dikultuskan.

 

anything